Unit of competency details

SITXEVT011A - Develop crowd control plans and procedures (Release 1)


ReleaseStatusRelease date
1 1 (this release)Current 29/Oct/2010

Usage recommendation:
Is superseded by and equivalent to SITXEVT606 - Develop crowd management plansSimplified title. Re-worked Elements, Performance Criteria, Required skills and Required knowledge to more fully articulate content. 17/Jan/2013

Training packages that include this unit


SchemeCodeClassification value
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 080399 Business And Management, N.e.c.  

Classification history

SchemeCodeClassification valueStart dateEnd date
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 080399 Business And Management, N.e.c.  25/Nov/2008 
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Modification History

Not applicable.

Unit Descriptor

Unit descriptor 

This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to develop plans and procedures for the admittance, seating and dispersal of crowds to ensure the safety and well-being of personnel and participants. It includes procedures for emergency situations.

Application of the Unit

Application of the unit 

This unit applies to individuals responsible for the development of plans and procedures for the management of large crowds in any industry or community context.

It is particularly relevant in the community, cultural, sporting and tourism sectors where large crowds are a feature of both ongoing and one-off business and community activity.

Development of crowd management procedures in this unit requires the application of significant critical thinking, planning and organisational skills, combined with a detailed knowledge of risk management issues, crowd control techniques and relevant emergency procedures. Those with managerial responsibility undertake this role. The unit is generalist in nature and does not cover the specialised operational crowd management skills required by police or other security experts.

Licensing/Regulatory Information

Not applicable.


Prerequisite units 


Employability Skills Information

Employability skills 

The required outcomes described in this unit of competency contain applicable facets of employability skills. The Employability Skills Summary of the qualification in which this unit is packaged will assist in identifying employability skills requirements.

Elements and Performance Criteria Pre-Content

Elements describe the essential outcomes of a unit of competency.

Performance criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element. Where bold italicised  text is used, further information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge and/or the range statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

Elements and Performance Criteria




Analyse risks associated with large crowds.


Identify and evaluate regulatory constraints and requirements in relation to crowd management .


Identify and analyse general risks  associated with gathering of large crowds to ensure the safety of personnel and participants.


Identify and analyse current and emerging situation -specific risks  and assess for their impact on planning.


Inspect, or organise inspection of, venue  and facilities to ensure compliance with legal requirements  and facilitate risk assessment.


Determine need for specialist assistance  and involvement of authorities  in crowd management.


Develop crowd management plans.


Establish and document maximum limits for admission based on analysis of risks  and venue .


Estimate expected crowd numbers based on historical data and current trends or attendance information.


Organise or confirm completion of any necessary work to ensure compliance with legal constraints and requirements.


Determine and document human resource requirement  for crowd management.


Develop plan that minimises identified risks  associated with the venue  and complies with legal constraints and requirements.


Consult with and gain input from relevant stakeholders on crowd management approaches.


Develop evaluation criteria  for crowd management plan in consultation with stakeholders.


Establish operational crowd management procedures.


Develop and document specific operational crowd control procedures , including contingency and critical incident procedures .


Identify critical tasks and allocate responsibilities.


Undertake or organise preparation and checking of safety equipment according to legal requirements and manufacturer instructions.


Ensure procedures consider and are integrated with broader management constraints and issues .


Provide crowd control briefings and relevant information  to stakeholders and staff.


Establish emergency crowd control procedures.


Develop and document procedures  for managing crowds in emergency situations  in consultation with relevant stakeholders.


Identify and document safety needs of special populations in emergency situations .


Implement and accurately document required practice drills.


Evaluate crowd control plans and procedures.


Evaluate effectiveness of crowd control, based on agreed evaluation criteria.


Ensure outcomes of evaluation are incorporated into future planning.

Required Skills and Knowledge


This section describes the essential skills and knowledge and their level, required for this unit.

The following skills must be assessed as part of this unit:

  • planning and organisational skills to develop cohesive operational plans, procedures and systems
  • research and critical thinking skills to assess risks associated with large crowds, seek information on regulatory requirements and develop appropriate strategies and procedures
  • literacy skills to develop documents explaining crowd control strategies and procedures
  • numeracy skills to work with concepts around capacity.

The following knowledge must be assessed as part of this unit:

  • types of situations that require specific crowd control planning
  • sources of specialist assistance in relation to crowd control
  • broader operational issues that impact on crowd management in the relevant work context
  • technology and equipment used in crowd management
  • legislation, regulations and industry codes that affect crowd management
  • specific risk management issues associated with large crowds
  • resource requirements for crowd management, including financial, human and physical resources.

Evidence Guide


The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, the range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for this Training Package.

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit 

Evidence of the following is essential:

  • detailed knowledge of the factors influencing crowd management planning and operations
  • ability to analyse crowd risks and develop plans and procedures for crowd management
  • ability to determine and organise appropriate resources to address emergency situations
  • demonstration of skills through development of crowd management plans and procedures for event or workplace operation.

Context of and specific resources for assessment 

Assessment must ensure:

  • access to venues at which crowd management would be required
  • use of current legal and other operational information on which to base planning
  • involvement of and interaction with stakeholders as part of the planning process.

Methods of assessment 

A range of assessment methods should be used to assess practical skills and knowledge. The following examples are appropriate for this unit:

  • evaluation of crowd management plans and procedures developed by the candidate
  • case studies to assess candidate's ability to develop crowd management approaches for a range of different events or workplace situations
  • questions to assess detailed knowledge of risks and factors influencing crowd management planning
  • review of portfolios of evidence and third party workplace reports of on-the-job performance by the candidate.

Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended.

Assessing employability skills 

Employability skills are integral to effective performance in the workplace and are broadly consistent across industry sectors. How these skills are applied varies between occupations and qualifications due to the different work functions and contexts.

Employability skills embedded in this unit should be assessed holistically with other relevant units that make up the skill set or qualification and in the context of the job role.

Range Statement


The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording in the performance criteria is detailed below.

Crowd management  may be required for:

  • ongoing business operations, such as at attractions or performance venues
  • events, including:
  • sport events
  • competitions
  • community events
  • festivals
  • functions
  • conferences
  • holiday programs
  • celebrations
  • arts events.

General risks  may include:

  • overcrowding
  • crowd stress
  • personal injury to attendees
  • onset of chronic stress related illnesses in personnel or participants e.g. anxiety, panic attacks, asthma, fainting
  • mob behaviour
  • fire hazards
  • inadequate provision for:
  • protection of participants
  • protection of performers
  • traffic flow
  • areas of congestion
  • access of emergency services.

Situation -specific risks  may relate to:

  • nature of audience, e.g. youth or elderly people
  • special needs of audience, attendees and participants
  • nature of event, e.g. intensity and impact on crowd
  • venue constraints and capacity
  • timing, in regard to factors such as weather considerations
  • event duration and its impact on crowd behaviour.

Venue  may be indoor or outdoor and may include:

  • open spaces
  • aquatic environments
  • streets
  • gymnasiums
  • restaurants
  • hotels
  • theatres
  • stadiums
  • arenas
  • sports grounds
  • attractions and theme parks.

Legal requirements  may include:

  • fire egress
  • OHS
  • risk management
  • first aid
  • insurances, including:
  • public liability
  • professional indemnity
  • public liability and duty of care.

Specialist assistance  may include:

  • local authorities
  • emergency services.

Authorities  may include:

  • local government
  • state government
  • emergency services
  • other industry bodies, including certifying bodies.

Human resource requirement  may include:

  • ushers and marshals
  • security personnel
  • on-site supervisors.

Evaluation criteria  may relate to:

  • speed and efficiency of crowd movements
  • absence of crowd incidents.

Operational crowd control procedures  may relate to:

  • access, including restricted areas, exits and aisles
  • evacuation
  • special population needs
  • first aid set-ups
  • precise numbers and location of personnel
  • allocation of duties and rostering
  • placement of physical elements, such as barriers and staging
  • communication methods and protocols, such as two-way radios.

Contingency and critical incident procedures  may relate to:

  • equipment breakdown
  • adverse weather
  • event staff sickness
  • potential changes in crowd behaviour
  • drug or alcohol-affected clients.

Broader management constraints and issues  may include:

  • overall event management structures
  • specific event objectives
  • budget
  • human resources
  • other staging requirements
  • factors external to the event.

Briefings and relevant information  may include:

  • location and venue maps
  • summary procedures
  • emergency telephone contacts.

Emergency situations  may include:

  • fire
  • earthquake
  • bombing
  • chemical leak or spill
  • riot
  • illegal entry
  • alcohol
  • drugs
  • medical emergency
  • equipment failure
  • stage failure or collapse.

Unit Sector(s)



Competency field

Competency field 

Event Management

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