Unit of competency details

TLIC3036A - Apply safe car driving behaviours (Release 1)


Usage recommendation:
Is superseded by and equivalent to TLIC3036 - Apply safe car driving behavioursUpdated to align with the Standards for Training Packages. 28/Feb/2016
Supersedes and is equivalent to TLIC3607B - Apply safe car driving behaviours06/Mar/2011

ReleaseRelease date
1 1 (this release) 07/Mar/2011


SchemeCodeClassification value
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 030515 Automotive Vehicle Operations  

Classification history

SchemeCodeClassification valueStart dateEnd date
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 030515 Automotive Vehicle Operations  02/Sep/2011 
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Modification History

Not Applicable

Unit Descriptor

Unit Descriptor 

This unit involves the high-level safe driving skills and knowledge required by car drivers to enable them to apply safe driving behaviours. This includes higher order skills, such as hazard perception, risk control and safe driving judgement, decision making and multi-tasking. Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification requirements are applicable to this unit.

Application of the Unit

Application of the Unit 

This unit is required by car driving instructors and covers higher order car driving skills and knowledge that build upon basic driver licence requirements.

Safe car driving behaviours must be able to be applied without supervision. This involves the application of higher order car driving skills, such as hazard perception, judgement, decision making, multi-tasking, risk control and safe driving attitudes across a range of vehicles and driving situations.

Definition of a vehicle (car class C) in this context is 'vehicle equal to or less than 4.5 tonnes GVM and seating up to 12 adults, including driver'.

Licensing/Regulatory Information

Refer to Unit Descriptor


Not Applicable

Employability Skills Information

Employability Skills 

This unit contains employability skills.

Elements and Performance Criteria Pre-Content

Elements describe the essential outcomes of a unit of competency.

Performance criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

Elements and Performance Criteria



Define and apply safe car behaviours 

1.1 Requirements for safe car driving are acknowledged, interpreted and applied

1.2 Importance of attitude in abiding by the road rules in relation to level of risk faced by a driver is understood and taken into account in car driving activities

1.3 Importance of cooperation with other road users in order to drive safely is understood and taken into account in car driving activities

1.4 Motivation to drive safely is interpreted and described, including values, emotions and personal needs

1.5 Principles of proactive driving, also known as low-risk driving, that keep the driver at a low-level risk are interpreted and applied

1.6 Specific factors that constitute an actual risk of a collision are understood and applied, including options for avoiding a collision; crash avoidance space; variables affecting minimum space; effects of observation, perception and response time; and consequences related to crash avoidance spaces

Interpret and apply low-risk driving strategies 

2.1 Risk factors contributing to the formation of opinions and beliefs about low-risk driving are understood and applied

2.2 Road safety information that reflects the changing road environment is clarified and taken into account in car driving activities

2.3 Human psychological and physiological aspects that can influence low-risk driving are acknowledged and taken into account in car driving activities

2.4 Low-risk driving strategies are understood, interpreted and applied consistently

Interpret and apply road rules applicable to safe car driving 

3.1 Relevant rules and regulations are identified, interpreted correctly and consistently applied

3.2 Road signs, signals and markings are identified and taken into account in car driving activities

3.3 Purpose of road rules and traffic safety laws in ensuring safe and efficient regulation of traffic flow is understood and taken into account in car driving activities

Manage collision when driving a car 

4.1 Common contributing collision factors, including age, experience, speed, drugs, alcohol, road conditions, fatigue and time of day are recognised, and appropriate actions are managed

4.2 External factors that could lead to collisions, including speed, space, vision, road conditions, vehicle condition and environmental conditions are understood and managed

4.3 Internal factors that could lead to collisions, including emotional factors, driver's own behaviours and driver's operation at high levels of risk are acknowledged and managed

4.4 Consequences of collisions in relation to relevant traffic laws and physical, financial and psychological costs to the individual and society are understood and managed

4.5 Functions of vehicle controls and how to recover control of the vehicle are understood and demonstrated

4.6 Corrective actions to be taken after a collision are understood and applied if required

Demonstrate and maintain a high level of competence in car control skills 

5.1 Appropriate action is taken to respond to various types of adverse conditions

5.2 Principles of braking are applied at a high level of competence

5.3 Principles of steering are applied at a high level of competence

5.4 Slow speed manoeuvres are carried out at a high level of competence

5.5 Vehicle is guided and controlled at a high level of competence

Required Skills and Knowledge


This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

Required knowledge :

  • Australian road law enforcement methodology
  • Common external risk factors in collisions or crashes, such as speed, space, vision, road conditions, vehicle conditions and environmental conditions
  • Common internal risk factors in collisions or crashes, such as age, experience, speed, drugs, alcohol, fatigue, time of driving (day or night), attitude, motivation, and beliefs or values
  • Consequences of collisions or crashes in relation to physical, financial and psychological costs to individuals and to society
  • Critical factors underpinning high-level driving competence
  • Low-risk driving principles
  • Driving hazards and related low-risk driving techniques
  • Established and reviewed laws and penalties in relation to demerit point offences, such as driving while disqualified or under the influence of drugs and alcohol
  • Importance of attitude in abiding by the road rules
  • Importance of cooperation with other road users
  • Importance of space and speed management to avoid a collision
  • Importance of vision to avoid collision
  • Processes for identifying and responding to hazards
  • Purpose and benefits of road rules enforcement for safe car driving
  • Rationale for ongoing development of traffic regulations to meet changing traffic conditions
  • Risk management and low-risk driving
  • Road safety issues, including fatigue management and effects of drugs, alcohol and medication on driving performance
  • Road signs, signals and markings
  • Road transport law (state or territory road rules and traffic safety legislation, e.g. driver licensing, vehicle registration, alcohol and drugs, and vehicle standards)
  • Rules of braking
  • Rules of observation
  • Rules of steering
  • Safe, proactive and responsible car driving behaviours
  • Types of adverse driving conditions commonly encountered during driving activities

Required skills :

  • Adapt appropriately to differences in vehicles, including their controls and safety devices, and the driving environment
  • Apply basic and high-level road skills when driving a car
  • Apply fatigue, attitude, motivation, concentration and anger management knowledge and techniques
  • Apply observation skills in the course of vehicle operations
  • Apply precautions and act to minimise, control or eliminate hazards that may exist while driving a vehicle
  • Apply road positioning skills
  • Apply safe car driving strategies
  • Apply traffic management skills
  • Carry out pre-operational checks and related action on vehicles
  • Communicate effectively with others when applying safe car driving behaviours
  • Deal effectively with adverse conditions while driving a vehicle
  • Evaluate risk and behave accordingly
  • Guide and control vehicles
  • Implement contingency plans for unexpected events that may occur while driving a vehicle
  • Interpret and follow operational instructions when applying safe car driving behaviours
  • Manage speed and space while driving a vehicle
  • Manoeuvre a vehicle at slow speed
  • Modify activities depending on differing operational contingencies, risk situations and environments
  • Monitor and anticipate traffic hazards and take appropriate action
  • Monitor performance of vehicle and take appropriate action where required
  • Monitor traffic and road conditions and react appropriately
  • Negotiate complex traffic and road conditions and make appropriate decisions
  • Promptly report and/or rectify identified problems, faults or malfunctions that may arise when applying safe car driving behaviours
  • Read and interpret instructions, road rules, procedures, jurisdictional requirements, information and signs relevant to safe car driving behaviours
  • Work collaboratively with other road users when driving a vehicle
  • Work systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others, or damage to goods or equipment

Evidence Guide


The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required knowledge and skills, the range statement and the assessment guidelines for this Training Package.

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit 

  • Evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria of this unit and include demonstration of applying:
  • compliance with appropriate legislative, regulatory and procedural requirements while driving a vehicle
  • identification of risk factors which might impact on driving behaviours and implementing appropriate low-risk driving response measures
  • selection and use of vehicle controls and safety devices to enable safe car driving

Context of and specific resources for assessment 

  • Performance is demonstrated consistently over a period of time and in a suitable range of contexts
  • Resources for assessment include:
  • a range of relevant exercises, case studies and/or other simulated practical and knowledge assessment, and/or
  • access to an appropriate range of relevant operational situations in the workplace
  • In both real and simulated environments, access is required to:
  • relevant and appropriate materials and equipment, and
  • applicable documentation including workplace procedures, regulations, codes of practice and operation manuals

Method of assessment 

  • Assessment of this unit must be undertaken by a registered training organisation
  • As a minimum, assessment of knowledge must be conducted through appropriate written/oral tests
  • Practical assessment must occur:
  • through activities in an appropriately simulated environment at the registered training organisation, and/or
  • in an appropriate range of situations in the workplace

Range Statement


The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance.

Applicable regulations and legislation may include:

  • road transport law, for example:
  • legislation and related regulations applicable to driving and using motor vehicles in relevant state or territory
  • motor vehicle driver learner permit, driver licence requirements and issue procedures applicable in relevant state or territory
  • occupational health and safety legislation in relevant state or territory
  • equal opportunity legislation in relevant state or territory
  • workplace relations legislation in relevant state or territory

Characteristics of car driving instructors may include information in relation to:

  • gender
  • age (within regulatory guidelines)
  • driving experience
  • fluency in English
  • educational background and general knowledge
  • diverse social and economic backgrounds and attitudes
  • effects of prior and current learning
  • individual learning styles

High level of driving competence is defined as:

  • ability to consistently carry out car driving tasks across a wide range of simple and complex situations and conditions, including different types of vehicles, weather conditions, road conditions and diverse potential hazards. This also includes the management of attitude, motivation, fatigue, anger and concentration

Road positioning skills are:

  • those required to maintain a safe legal position on the road when driving a vehicle. This includes observation, speed management, decision making, hazard perception and response to hazards, buffering from other vehicles, maintaining space when making turns at intersections, maintaining space from other vehicles when stopped, or reducing speed and maintaining space requirements during manoeuvres, such as kerb-side stopping, hill starts, u-turns, three-point turns and reverse parking

Communication may include:

  • oral and aural
  • written communication
  • reading and interpreting maps, street directories and GPS navigation devices
  • using own vehicle horn, indicators, brake lights and road positioning
  • recognising and responding to signals from other vehicles
  • recognising and responding to road signs, traffic signals and other authorised signalling systems
  • non-verbal communication with other drivers and motorcycle riders e.g. gestures and nods

Factors that affect learning progress may include:

  • effects of previous and current learning
  • decision making skills in a range of driving situations
  • optimism bias (tendency to view negative incidents such as road accidents as unlikely to happen to them; overestimation of driving ability; and underestimation of accident risk)
  • causal attribution (explains that driver's actions often depend upon their interpretation of the cause of events, limiting the ability to make objective risk assessments and resulting in a tendency to blame external causes)
  • learner characteristics and attitudes
  • resources, e.g. time, location, space, people and costs
  • vehicle type

Resources may include:

  • training materials and publications
  • location
  • personnel
  • dual control vehicle
  • OH&S and other workplace resource requirements
  • enterprise/industry standard operating procedures
  • funding for training facilities, resources and staff

Road users may include:

  • pedestrians
  • cyclists
  • drivers or riders of trams and trains, and motor vehicles, including motorcycles, light vehicles and heavy vehicles

Specific needs may relate to:

  • age (within regulatory guidelines)
  • disability (within regulatory guidelines)
  • language, literacy and numeracy needs
  • those requiring refresher training

Driving may be undertaken in/at:

  • a range of vehicle types
  • restricted spaces
  • open roads, e.g. freeways, main and busy roads, country roads and suburban roads
  • controlled or open environments
  • a simulated environment
  • a range of weather conditions
  • time of day

Learning activities may include:

  • demonstrations
  • explanations
  • problem solving
  • mentoring
  • coaching while driving
  • self-paced learning
  • assessment with feedback
  • combinations of the above

Workplace documents and procedures may include:

  • company/enterprise/organisational procedures and policies
  • record of driving skills, knowledge and abilities
  • standards and certification requirements
  • quality assurance procedures
  • emergency procedures

Unit Sector(s)

Not Applicable

Competency Field

Competency Field 

C - Vehicle Operation