Unit of competency details

SISOSNK403A - Instruct snorkelling skills (Release 2)


Usage recommendation:
Is superseded by SISOSNK002 - Lead snorkelling activitiesNot equivalent. Title changed. Two units merged: SISOSNK302A Guide snorkelling and SISOSNK403A Instruct snorkelling skills Unit focuses on leadership skills at time of delivery; planning removed. Planning skills for leaders covered in SISOPLN001, SISOPLN002, SISOPLN004 & SISOPLN005. Significant changes to performance criteria and knowledge evidence. 10/Sep/2019

Release Status:
ReleaseRelease date
2 (this release) 28/Nov/2011
(View details for release 1) 07/Jun/2011

Training packages that include this unit


SchemeCodeClassification value
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 092103 Sports Coaching, Officiating And Instruction  

Classification history

SchemeCodeClassification valueStart dateEnd date
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 092103 Sports Coaching, Officiating And Instruction  18/Nov/2011 
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Modification History

Not Applicable

Unit Descriptor

This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to instruct snorkelling skills. This unit focuses on planning, instructing and evaluating instructional snorkelling sessions to enable participants to achieve the skills and knowledge required to participate independently, or with minimal supervision, in a snorkelling activity in confined and or open water conditions.

Application of the Unit

This unit applies to those working as snorkelling instructors who conduct snorkelling activities in a range of confined and or open water conditions.

This unit may also apply to outdoor recreation leaders working for outdoor education or adventure providers, volunteer groups, not for profit organisations or government agencies.

Licensing/Regulatory Information

No licensing, regulatory or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of endorsement.



Employability Skills Information

This unit contains employability skills.

Elements and Performance Criteria Pre-Content

Elements and Performance Criteria



Elements describe the essential outcomes of a unit of competency.

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element. Where bold italicised text is used, further information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge section and the range statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the Evidence Guide.

1. Plan a snorkelling session.

1.1. Establish participant's needs and characteristics .

1.2. Assess participant's current snorkelling knowledge in order to determine the session's aims and objectives .

1.3. Determine an appropriate instructional plan  according to participant's needs and characteristics.

1.4. Develop a snorkelling plan  according to participant's needs and characteristics, industry criteria , relevant legislation  and organisational policies and procedures .

1.5. Identify potential hazards  associated with snorkelling and minimise risks  according to organisational policies and procedures.

1.6. Access relevant sources  to interpret detailed weather and environmental information  and determine contingency plans .

2. Select and organise equipment and resources.

2.1. Select and access equipment  and resources  according to contextual issues  and organisational policies and procedures, and check working condition.

2.2. Check equipment for safety and suitability according to relevant legislation and manufacturer's recommendations, and adjust and fit to ensure personal comfort.

2.3. Check contents of first aid and repair kits to ensure suitability to the location and activity.

3. Brief participants.

3.1. Communicate instructions and relevant information about the snorkelling session in a manner appropriate to the participants.

3.2. Encourage participants to seek clarification, information and feedback as required during the session.

3.3. Establish a suitable communication system for participants to use while snorkelling.

3.4. Inform participants of known and anticipated hazards, safety procedures and appropriate behaviour.

3.5. Check and confirm that all participant equipment is fitted and adjusted.

4. Instruct the session.

4.1. Conduct introductory activities for participants to reduce the risk of injury.

4.2. Monitor individual participant's performance during snorkelling session.

4.3. Apply clear and accurate instructional techniques  to impart activity specific knowledge , snorkelling techniques  and safety and rescue procedures .

4.4. Demonstrate procedures for dealing with emergency and non-routine situations according to organisational policies and procedures.

4.5. Inform participants of opportunities to further develop their snorkelling skills and knowledge.

5. Complete post session responsibilities.

5.1. Retrieve, inspect, repair and store equipment according to organisational policies and procedures.

5.2. Provide opportunities for participants to identify their personal progress and satisfaction with the session, and give feedback as required.

5.3. Evaluate relevant aspects  of the snorkelling session and determine the level of learning achieved.

5.4. Identify potential areas of improvement for future snorkelling instructional sessions.

Required Skills and Knowledge

This section describes the skills and knowledge required for this unit.

Required skills 

  • communication skills to:
  • consult with participants to plan an appropriate snorkelling session
  • convey information about the safety aspects of the session
  • interact with participants to create a safe and positive environment
  • problem-solving skills to:
  • plan snorkelling sessions according to participant's needs and characteristics
  • address participant difficulties in developing techniques
  • anticipate and respond to non-routine situations
  • planning and organising skills to:
  • source, allocate and coordinate resources, equipment and a suitable snorkelling site
  • monitor and evaluate progress
  • organise participants into manageable groups for snorkelling
  • language and literacy skills to:
  • produce snorkelling and instructional plans for the session
  • complete post session participant and self evaluations
  • personal snorkelling skills to a high level of technical correctness to demonstrate and explain techniques to participants
  • first aid and emergency response skills appropriate to the site to enable initial response and or rescue in emergencies whilst instructing snorkelling.

Required knowledge 

  • legislation, organisational policies and procedures and industry criteria to ensure safe conduct of snorkelling session
  • site specific information to assist in the planning process and enable management of potential hazards, and any special restrictions applying to the site
  • equipment types, characteristics and technology used for snorkelling, the advantages and disadvantages of the range of equipment, and factors affecting appropriate selection
  • care and maintenance of snorkelling equipment to ensure prolonged life span and safety requirements
  • instruction techniques and theories applicable to a range of ages and learning abilities
  • principles of nutrition to maintain health and energy throughout the session
  • snorkelling techniques and common communication systems used in snorkelling to reduce risk
  • technical snorkelling knowledge, such as factors affecting buoyancy and how to control sinking and floating, pressure, volume and temperature as related to squeezes, and atmospheric related concerns such as hypothermia, hyperthermia and sunburn
  • weather and environmental information to ascertain possible conditions and their affect on the session
  • sea features such as currents, waves and tides and how these might impact on the snorkelling experience
  • aquatic hazards and risks that may be experienced in confined and or open water conditions, such as sea life and environmental, and how to safely negotiate these
  • first aid, emergency and rescue procedures relevant to the site to ensure risk minimisation to self and group.

Evidence Guide

The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package.

Overview of assessment 

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit 

Evidence of the following is essential:

  • plans and delivers information, explanations and demonstrations for snorkelling session to ensure activities are conducted safely according to participant's needs and characteristics
  • observes and monitors the progress of participants and provides constructive feedback and intervention to improve snorkelling performance
  • uses and modifies instructional techniques and or activities to cater for a range of individual learning styles
  • evaluates and reflects on own instruction performance to identify strengths, weaknesses and areas that need improvement.

Context of and specific resources for assessment 

Assessment must ensure instruction of snorkelling activities that reflect the needs and characteristics of a range of participants to demonstrate competency and consistency of performance

Assessment must also ensure access to:

  • a snorkelling site with either open or confined water that enables the conduct of instructional sessions
  • participants to take part in the snorkelling session
  • snorkelling, safety, rescue, first aid and teaching equipment
  • resources and information regarding participants and site to plan, instruct and document snorkelling sessions for a variety of participants.

Method of assessment 

A range of assessment methods should be used to assess practical skills and knowledge. The following examples are appropriate for this unit:

  • observation of planning processes, such as consulting with participants to determine their needs and characteristics
  • oral or written questioning to assess knowledge and application of relevant legislation and organisational policies and procedures to the safe conduct of all snorkelling activities
  • observation of safe snorkelling instruction, monitoring and adjustment according to participant's needs and characteristics
  • portfolio of snorkelling session and instructional plans
  • third-party reports from a supervisor detailing performance.

Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended, for example:

  • SROSNK201A Demonstrate snorkelling activities.

Range Statement

The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts) may also be included.

Characteristics  may include:

  • age
  • cultural and situational factors
  • previous experience and knowledge
  • physical development.

Session's aims and objectives  may include:

  • developing snorkelling skills
  • education
  • development
  • therapy
  • fitness targets
  • recreation.

Instructional plan  may include:

  • snorkelling activities and drills
  • duration of activities and drills.

Snorkelling plan  may include:

  • aims and objectives
  • date, time and duration
  • snorkelling site, equipment and resources
  • safety requirements
  • contingency plan.

Industry criteria  may include:

  • British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC)
  • Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI)
  • SCUBA Schools International (SSI).

Relevant legislation  may include:

  • occupational health and safety
  • permits or permission for access
  • environmental regulations.
  • marine regulations.

Organisational policies and procedures  may include:

  • occupational health and safety
  • time and budget constraints
  • communication protocols
  • code of ethics
  • confidentiality of participant information
  • minimal impact codes.

Hazards  may include:

  • temperature extremes
  • slippery or unstable terrain
  • dangerous animals and insects
  • group management hazards.

Risks  may include:

  • hypothermia
  • heat exhaustion
  • injuries
  • exhaustion
  • lost party or party member
  • equipment failure.

Relevant sources  may include:

  • Bureau of Meteorology
  • media
  • land managers or agencies
  • coastal patrol or coastguard
  • volunteer marine rescue
  • local knowledge.

Weather and environmental information  may include:

  • satellite images
  • daily and weekly forecasts
  • maximum and minimum temperatures
  • weather warnings
  • event warnings
  • river levels
  • synoptic charts
  • high and low tide predictions.

Contingency plans  may include:

  • change in weather and or water conditions
  • equipment failure
  • participant's needs

Equipment  may include:

  • snorkel
  • mask
  • boots
  • fins
  • dive knife and or tool
  • wet suit
  • weight system or buoyancy control
  • safety and rescue equipment
  • first aid equipment
  • exposure protection.

Resources  may include:

  • clothing
  • food and water
  • teaching aids.

Contextual issues  may include:

  • weather conditions, including tide times
  • season
  • transport
  • location
  • trip distance and duration
  • group objectives
  • group size.

Instructional techniques  may include:

  • simple to complex
  • part to whole
  • chronological
  • known to unknown
  • D.E.D.I.C.T:
  • demonstrate
  • explain
  • demonstrate
  • instruct
  • critique
  • test
  • E.D.I.C.T:
  • explain
  • demonstrate
  • instruct
  • critique
  • test
  • I.D.E.A:
  • introduce
  • demonstrate
  • explain
  • apply
  • orientate, enhance, synthesise

Required knowledge  may include:

  • safety procedures
  • snorkelling techniques
  • communication systems
  • responsible and safe behaviour.

Snorkelling techniques  may include:

  • entering and exiting the water
  • breathing through a snorkel
  • clearing a snorkel and mask
  • equalising to clear water from ears
  • swimming and diving on a snorkel
  • performing snorkel dive rescues.

Safety and rescue procedures  may include:

  • emergency response procedures
  • group management in emergency situations
  • symptoms, treatment and prevention of common snorkelling risks.

Relevant aspects  may include:

  • objectives
  • planning process
  • activity site
  • weather
  • equipment selection
  • clothing selection
  • food selection
  • instructional content
  • instructional technique
  • assessment technique
  • group feedback
  • directing techniques
  • rescue techniques employed.

Unit Sector(s)

Outdoor Recreation

Competency Field