Unit of competency details

ICAB4171B - Develop cascading style sheets (Release 1)


ReleaseStatusRelease date
1 1 (this release)Current 05/Jul/2010

Usage recommendation:
Is superseded by and equivalent to ICAWEB409A - Develop cascading style sheetsOutcomes deemed equivalent. Added application of unit. Changes to range statement, required skills and knowledge and evidence guide. Changes to elements and performance criteria. 17/Jul/2011

Training packages that include this unit


SchemeCodeClassification value
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 020103 Programming  

Classification history

SchemeCodeClassification valueStart dateEnd date
ASCED Module/Unit of Competency Field of Education Identifier 020103 Programming  08/Jul/2010 
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Modification History

Not Applicable

Unit Descriptor

Unit descriptor 

This unit defines the competency required to develop cascading style sheets (CSS) that are attached to a markup language document in order to externally define and control styles to enhance and achieve commonality between web documents.

No licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

Application of the Unit

Application of the unit 

Licensing/Regulatory Information

Refer to Unit Descriptor


Prerequisite units 

Employability Skills Information

Employability skills 

This unit contains employability skills.

Elements and Performance Criteria Pre-Content

Elements describe the essential outcomes of a unit of competency.

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element. Where bold italicised text is used, further information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge section and the range statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

Elements and Performance Criteria



1. Define styles

1.1. Identify and document the purpose of the mark-up language document

1.2. Identify and document appropriate styles that are to be controlled by the CSS

1.3. Define and document the styles in accordance with established design or business guidelines 

2. Produce CSS

2.1. Produce CSS using the determined styles

3. Attach CSS to new markup language documents

3.1. Start new mark-up language document

3.2. Attach CSS to document

3.3. Produce document, applying styles from CSS

3.4. Repeat this process, attaching the same CSS to different document

4. Attach CSS to existing markup language documents

4.1. Open existing mark-up language document

4.2. Attach CSS to document

4.3. Apply styles from CSS to document, removing redundant tags

4.4. Repeat this process, attaching the same CSS to different document

5. Edit CSS

5.1. Edit CSS and confirm changes in attached document

6. Validate CSS

6.1. Validate that the website functions correctly and that the styles satisfy the purpose of the document

6.2. Validate that the website functions correctly using different browsers 

Required Skills and Knowledge


This section describes the skills and knowledge required for this unit.

Required skills 

  • HTML development
  • Application of software needed for cascading style sheets (CSS)
  • Select and use a CSS enhanced browser

Required knowledge 

  • Website architecture
  • Using a mark-up language
  • Basic design principles
  • Software and tools are selected to meet specifications
  • Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics

Evidence Guide


The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package.

Overview of assessment 

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit 

Evidence of the following is essential:

  • Assessment must confirm the ability to develop an appropriate presentation style for an HTML document using embedded or linked CSS. Presentation conforms to web accessibility guidelines and meets the business needs and is signed off.

To demonstrate competency in this unit the person will require access to:

  • Computer
  • Application for creating CSS
  • CSS enhanced browser
  • Aesthetic presentation brief
  • HTML documents to have CSS applied to them

Context of and specific resources for assessment 

Cascading style sheets are a comprehensive way to deliver complex, interactive websites and provides an opportunity to create a portal that meets a range of client and user needs.

The breadth, depth and complexity of knowledge and skills in this competency would cover a broad range of varied activities or application in a wider variety of contexts most of which are complex and non-routine. Leadership and guidance would be involved when organising activities of self and others as well as contributing to technical solutions of a non-routine or contingency nature.

Assessment must ensure:

  • Performance of a broad range of skilled applications including the requirement to evaluate and analyse current practices, develop new criteria and procedures for performing current practices and provision of some leadership and guidance to others in the application and planning of the skills would be characteristic.

  • Applications may involve responsibility for, and limited organisation of, others.

Method of assessment 

The purpose of this unit is to define the standard of performance to be achieved in the workplace. In undertaking training and assessment activities related to this unit, consideration should be given to the implementation of appropriate diversity and accessibility practices in order to accommodate people who may have special needs. Additional guidance on these and related matters is provided in ICA05 Section 1.

  • Competency in this unit should be assessed using summative assessment to ensure consistency of performance in a range of contexts. This unit can be assessed either in the workplace or in a simulated environment. However, simulated activities must closely reflect the workplace to enable full demonstration of competency.

  • The assessment of this unit of competency will usually include observation of CSS generation and the CSS results.

  • Assessment will usually include observation of real or simulated work processes and procedures and/or performance in a project context as well as questioning on underpinning knowledge and skills. The questioning of team members, supervisors, subordinates, peers and clients where appropriate may provide valuable input to the assessment process. The interdependence of units for assessment purposes may vary with the particular project or scenario.

Guidance information for assessment 

Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended.

An individual demonstrating this competency would be able to:

  • Demonstrate understanding of a broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts
  • Apply solutions to a defined range of unpredictable problems
  • Identify and apply skill and knowledge areas to a wide variety of contexts, with depth in some areas
  • Identify, analyse and evaluate information from a variety of sources
  • Take responsibility for own outputs in relation to specified quality standards
  • Take limited responsibility for the quantity and quality of the output of others
  • Develop CSS style sheets that streamline website experiences or enhance interaction with the end user.
  • The scope and complexity of knowledge and skills is dependent on the tasks undertaken as part of compiling and running applications
  • Maintain knowledge of industry products and services

Range Statement


The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts) may also be included.

Business guidelines  may include but are not limited to:

  • personal use of emails and internet access
  • content of emails
  • downloading information and accessing particular websites
  • opening mail with attachments
  • virus risk

Browsers  may include but is not limited to:

  • Netscape Navigator
  • Internet Explorer
  • Mozilla
  • Opera
  • Galleon
  • Phoenix
  • Konqueror
  • Lynx

Unit Sector(s)

Unit sector 


Co-requisite units

Co-requisite units 

Competency field

Competency field 

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